IMPORTANT NOTICE: 2017 DMCA Agent Designation – Previous Designated Agents Must Re-Register Online Before December 31, 2017

do-it-now-1432945_1920If you operate, manage, or host a website, mobile app, blog or other digital service  that allows users (aka third parties) to post comments or upload media, such as pictures, videos or audio files, then you need to be taking advantage of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (“DMCA”)  Safe Harbor to protect yourself from copyright infringement liability for infringing materials posted on your site by users of your service.

The U.S. Copyright Office recently introduced a new online DMCA Agent Directory and registration process to replace the prior paper-based system and directory for DMCA Designated Agents, which became effective on December 1, 2016.  Designating a DMCA Agent with the Copyright Office is part of the process to protect you from copyright infringement liability for third party posts (aka user-posted content) on your app/blog/website and corresponds to the DMCA Takedown Notice Procedures that should be included in the Terms of Use on your website/blog/app.  If you do not register (or re-register) a DMCA designated agent, you risk losing the safe harbor protections of Section 512 of the DMCA, leaving you potentially vulnerable to certain types of claims of copyright infringement.

 register-1627729_1280NOTE: Even if you previously designated an agent with the Copyright Office prior to December 1, 2016 (via a paper form), you will need to submit a new designation electronically using the online registration system by December 31, 2017, or your prior designation will expire and become invalid.

In order to register, you will need to create an account.  You will need to include a primary contact (with the option to include a secondary contact) when you register, and then an email will be sent to the primary contact with instructions on how to active the account.  Once the account is activated, you will be able to complete the DMCA designed agent registration process.

You will need to register the following information:

  • Full Legal Name of Service Provider (legal entity name) and related contact information
  • Alternative Name(s) of Service Provider (including all names under which the service provider is doing business, such as domain name(s), blog or mobile app name(s), assumed/trade name(s), etc.)
    • NOTE: Separate legal entities are not considered alternate names. Related or affiliated service providers that are separate legal entities (e.g., corporate parents and subsidiaries) are considered separate service providers, and each must have its own separate designation.
  • Name of Agent Designated to Receive Notification of Claimed Infringement (which can be the name of an individual or a specific position or title [e.g., Copyright Manager, VP Legal Affairs, or General Counsel] or a specific department [e.g., Copyright Compliance Department] or third-party entity [e.g., ACME Takedown Service] rather than an individually named person as the agent…which may be preferable to avoid having to update the form if the named individual should ever leave the company) and related contact information
  • Pay the Fee (the current registration fee to designate an agent, or amend or resubmit a designation is $6.00 per service provider, with no additional fee for any alternate names)

In addition to registering a designated agent, you will also need to post copyright infringement notice provisions on your site and comply with the DMCA takedown and notice procedures. Click on the following links for more information about the DMCA Safe Harbors and what you need to do to benefit from them, as well as DMCA Designated Agent FAQs.

Renewal Requirements. In an attempt to ensure that the DMCA Agent Directory contains accurate and up-to-date information, your agent designation will expire and become invalid three years after it is registered (or last amended) with the U.S. Copyright Office, unless you renew it prior to the expiration for another three-year period. The online system will send renewal reminders to the primary and secondary contacts, service provider, and designated agent listed in your account 90 days, 60 days, 30 days, and 7 days prior to your renewal deadline.

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) Safe Harbor

email-826333_1280The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (“DMCA”) is an amendment to the U.S. Copyright Act (i.e., the federal copyright law) signed into effect in October 1998 that, among other things, provides certain limitations on the liability of online service providers (“Provider(s)”) for acts of copyright infringement by third parties.

The DMCA actually contains two types of liability limitations:

The first (Section 512(d)) protects a Provider that unknowingly provides a link to infringing copyrighted material located on another site.

The second (Section 512(c)) , which we discuss in more detail here, limits the liability of Providers that store copyrighted materials on a system or network they control or operate if (among other things), (i) such storage was directed by a third-party user, (ii) the service provider has designated an agent (also referred to as a “take-down agent”) to receive notifications of claimed infringement, and (iii) the service provider has both registered the agent’s contact information with the U.S. Copyright Office and publicly provided such information on its website.

It is important to note that, because the DMCA protects against claims of copyright infringement and not other types of wrongdoing, it will not help against claims of infringement concerning trademarks or service marks, stolen trade secrets, or other types of intellectual property.  The DMCA is also not relevant to claims of defamation, although a Provider may have protection for defamatory statements made by third parties under Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act.

The DMCA Safe Harbor

The DMCA is a “safe-harbor” is an exception to the general rule that a Provider is liable for acts of infringement committed by its users. Because the DMCA is intended to protect Providers from inadvertent infringement by third parties, it will not help in a situation where the Provider itself is accused of infringement (i.e., where the Provider posts infringing copyrighted content), or where the Provider knows content it hosts infringes a copyright.

Because the DMCA can be an absolute defense to liability for copyright infringement by a third party, registering a take-down agent may even prevent someone from suing the Provider for infringement in the first place.

Online Service Providers

In essence, you qualify as a Provider and are eligible for protection under the DMCA if you operate, manage or host a website, blog, mobile app, social media platform, portal, game, or other digital service that allows users (aka third parties) to upload or post content. That can include the following activities:

  • Allowing users to post comments or review, or respond to discussion threads
  • Allowing users to upload media, such as pictures, .gifs, videos or audio files

The above is true because the definition of “infringe” or “infringement” is very broad and captures many activities. For example, if your site allows users to submit a thumbnail sized avatar in connection with the user’s comment and the user chooses an image that infringes a third-party’s copyright, you can be liable. Knowledge or intent are not relevant for purposes of liability for infringement under the copyright law; so, you can be held responsible for copyright infringement even if you have no idea these activities are going on (and, if you have not registered a DMCA agent, even if you take down the offending material immediately after being notified!).

How to Benefit from the DMCA Safe Harbor Provisions

In order to enjoy the benefits of the safe-harbor provisions, a Provider must comply with a few administrative requirements:

  1. Designate a copyright take-down agent to receive DMCA takedown notices.

In order to designate an agent, a Provider must create an account, provide some basic information (the Provider’s legal name, alternatives names for the Provider, the name or title of the Provider’s agent designated to receive infringement claim notices, and related contact information) and pay a filing fee (currently $6 to designate an agent, or amend or resubmit a designation, for an unlimited number of alternative names, websites, etc. for the Provider). The U.S. Copyright Office maintains an official list of designated agents, which allows a person who believes his or her work is being infringed to quickly send a takedown notice.

  1. Adopt a copyright infringement policy and notify site users.

The Provider must publish a statement on its website to provide notice to the site users of its copyright infringement policies, the consequences of repeated infringing activity, and advising users of the takedown agent’s contact information. Many people include a DMCA policy in their terms of service, but it may also be placed in a separate document.

  1. Watch for and properly comply with any notice of claimed infringement received.

A person claiming infringement must provide the Provider a written notice that substantially meets the following requirements:

  • A detailed description of the copyrighted work(s) allegedly being infringed;
  • A description (such as the subdomain link) of the location on the site where the   allegedly infringing content appears reasonably sufficient to permit the Provider to locate the material;
  • The claimant’s contact information, including name, address, telephone number, and, if available, email address;
  • A statement that the claimant has a good faith belief that the allegedly infringing use is not authorized by the claimant as the copyright owner, by the claimant’s agent, or by law;
  • A statement affirming that, under penalty of perjury, the information in the notice is accurate and that the claimant is, or is authorized to act on behalf of, the copyright owner; and
  • A physical or electronic signature of the copyright owner or someone authorized on the owner’s behalf to assert infringement of copyright and to submit the statement.

Remember that the DMCA protects only against copyright infringement, not against other types of accused wrongdoing. Therefore, a Provider must be careful to make sure any notice it receives alleges a copyright infringement and not some other type of wrong doing.

Also note that not all cease and desist letters or takedown notices will be proper, and a Provider is not under a legal obligation to comply with notices that do not substantially meet the above requirements.

If a takedown notice does not meet the requirements, a Provider should respond to the party who submitted the takedown notice, state that the notice does not comply with the DMCA requirements, and inform the complainant that he may resubmit a takedown notice that substantially complies with the DMCA requirements.

If a takedown notice does meet the requirements, a Provider should promptly:

  1. remove or disable access to the material that is claimed to be infringing;
  2. notify the complainant that the material has been removed; and
  3. notify the allegedly infringing party that the material has been removed so that he may file a counter-notice.

Often, a potentially offending user will not file a counter-notice, but if he or she does, a proper counter-notice must contain substantially the following information:

  • The alleged infringer’s name, address, phone number
  • Identification of the material and its location before removal
  • A statement under penalty of perjury that the material was removed by mistake or misidentification
  • The alleged infringer’s consent to local federal court jurisdiction, or if overseas, to an appropriate judicial body
  • A physical or electronic signature of the alleged infringer

If the counter-notice meets these specifications, the Provider should forward the counter-notice to the person who claimed infringement. That person must then file a lawsuit within 10 business days of the Provider’s notice to the complainant of the counter-notice; otherwise, the Provider should reinstate the disputed material within 10-14 business days after sending the counter-notice to the complainant.

While there is no requirement under the DMCA for a Provider to remove any material(s), the receipt of a valid takedown notice acts to give the Provider notice of the allegedly infringing activity, and therefore ineligible for limited liability. The Provider may then face liability for continuing to host the material.

Consult a qualified attorney if you are unsure of what the notice or demand letter is alleging or if you have questions about whether you must comply with a takedown notice or how you should comply with the takedown notice.

I didn’t register a DMCA takedown agent and now someone has filed a copyright infringement lawsuit against me. Am I out of luck?

In order to benefit from the safe harbor protections, a Provider must register a DMCA agent prior to an allegation of infringement which it wishes to defeat with the registration.

Even if a Provider has not registered a DMCA agent, it may still be able to defend against a claim on the merits of the alleged infringement. For example, if the amount of supposedly infringing material is small or is posted in a way meant to be educational and includes a citation for the material, you may have a defense under the fair use doctrine (although a fair use defense may not apply depending on the facts of each particular situation). Some cases also indicate that a defense may exist by asserting that infringing third-party posts are simply not the responsibility of the Provider. However, if a Provider has not registered under the DMCA, it will not be able to claim that it was unaware of the infringing activity or that it quickly removed the offending material.

Happy Birthday Copyright Ruled Invalid

birthday-937520_1280You may be hearing “Happy Birthday” more often now that a federal judge in Los Angeles has ruled that the copyright Warner/Chappell Music claimed to own in the lyrics of the song is invalid.  According to the opinion issued on September 22, 2015, “Because Summy Co. never acquired the rights to the Happy Birthday lyrics, Defendants [Warner/Chappell], as Summy Co.’s purported successors-in-interest, do not own a valid copyright in the Happy Birthday lyrics.”

Unless the ruling is overturned or someone else comes forward with a valid ownership claim, third parties will no longer be required to pay licensing fees to use the song in movies, TV shows, greeting cards and the like…and Warner/Chappell will be out an estimated $2 million a year in royalties it collected from the song.

Click here for more on the story.

How to Protect Titles of Creative Works

Although movies, TV shows, art, books, musibooks-498422_1280c, lyrics and recordings are protected by copyright, the titles, names and tag lines associated with these types of creative works do not qualify for copyright protection. However, in certain instances, titles of creative works may be protectable as trademarks.

For example, you cannot register a trademark for the title, or a portion of a title, of a single creative work (such as a book, a television episode, a film, a live theatre production, or a phonograph record).  [NOTE: Computer software and computer games are not treated as single creative works.]

However, if the title has been (or will be) used in connection with a series of creative works (e.g., a series of books, the second edition of a book with significant changes, a periodically issued magazine, a television or movie series, a series of live performances [such as by a musical artist], educational seminars, or a continuing radio program), it may constitute a mark for either entertainment or educational services.

For more information about how to protect titles, here’s an article I wrote entitled A Different Kind of Title Insurance: How to Protect Titles of Creative Works that was published in Bloomberg BNA’s Patent, Trademark and Copyright Journal.

 

Intellectual Property Overview

Here’s a quick overview about copyrights, trademarks, patents and other types of intellectual property…

COPYRIGHTS –iStock_000040071288Medium Copyrights protect creative works.

Technically, copyrights protect “original works of authorship” that are “fixed in any tangible medium of expression,” such as literary and musical works; pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works; computer software; motion pictures and other audiovisual works; sound recordings; and architectural works. Copyright protection exists from the moment the work is written down, recorded, photographed, etc.

Copyright protection usually lasts for the life of the author plus 70 years. Copyrights are protected by U.S. federal law (17 U.S.C. § 101 et seq.) and international treaty. (Note: You do not have to file for a copyright registration to have federal copyright protection…but there are several advantages to obtaining a registration.)  For more information, visit www.copyright.gov.

TRADEMARKS – Trademarks are brand names and logos that are used on products or in connection with services.

A trademark is a word, phrase, name, slogan, tagline, logo, domain name, symbol, device, or any combination of these, which is used (or intended to be used) in commerce to identify and distinguish the goods or services of one entity from those sold or provided by others, and to indicate the source of the goods or services. A trademark also stands as a symbol of the quality which people expect in products sold and services provided in connection with a mark.

Trademarks can include trade names, logos, domain names, 800 numbers, advertising slogans, jingles, and store designs.

Trademark protection can last as long as a mark is used in commerce. Trademarks are protected by common law, state law, U.S. federal law (15 U.S.C. §§ 1051-1141n) and the laws of individual foreign countries. For more information, visit http://www.uspto.gov/.

Service Marks – A service mark is basically the same as a trademark except that it identifies a service instead of a product. For practical purposes, the same rules apply to service marks as apply to trademarks.

Trade Dress – A product’s trade dress, which includes product features and configurations such as shape, texture, size, color and packaging, may also be protected if it is “nonfunctional.” A feature is functional if it is necessary to a product’s utility, or affects its cost and/or method of manufacture. However, if other, different physical features can perform the same function without sacrificing a functional advantage, the design may be considered nonfunctional.

Trade Names – A trade name is the name under which an entity does business, such as Bell Nunnally & Martin LLP.  A trade name encompasses the reputation of the entire business while trademarks and service marks identify specific products and services sold by that business. No particular notice or usage is required for trade names.  It is usually not proper to use the trademark symbol with the trade name.

PATENTS – Patents protect inventions and improvements to existing inventions.

A patent is a property right granted to an inventor by the government.  Patents can be granted to anyone who “invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.” Patents confer the right “to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling” the invention in or “importing” the invention into the U.S. for a limited time in exchange for public disclosure of the invention when the patent is granted.

Utility Patents – A utility patent covers an invention of a new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.  (Protection lasts 20 years from patent application filing date.)

Design Patents – A design patent covers a new, original, and ornamental design for an article of manufacture.  (Protection lasts 14 years from date patent issues.)

Patents are protected by U.S. federal law (35 U.S.C. § 1 et seq.) and the laws of individual foreign countries. For more information, visit http://www.uspto.gov/.

TRADE SECRETS – A trade secret generally includes any information that derives independent economic value from not being generally known or reasonably ascertainable, and is the subject of reasonable efforts to maintain its secrecy.

Trade secret protection can last as long as the secret is kept. Trademarks are protected by common law, state law (most states follow the Uniform Trade Secret Protection Act), U.S. federal law (18 U.S.C. § 1839(3)) and the laws of individual foreign countries.  Practically, trade secrets are usually maintained through nondisclosure and noncompete agreements.